Les enfants qui sont épuisés après avoir couru partout dorment mieux, et ceux qui ont bien dormi ont plus d’énergie pour courir.26,27 La société commence à s’intéresser au fait que l’inverse est aussi vrai et troublant : les enfants ne bougent pas assez pour être fatigués et ils peuvent même être trop fatigués pour bouger. L’immense intérêt porté à la façon dont ces comportements sont liés met en évidence que le manque de sommeil est un problème chez les enfants canadiens :

Seulement 24 % des jeunes âgés de 5 à 17 ans satisfont aux Directives canadiennes en matière de comportement sédentaire qui recommandent de limiter à deux heures de loisir par jour le temps passé devant un écran.

  • Au cours des dernières décennies, la durée de la nuit du sommeil chez les enfants a diminué de quelque 30 à 60 minutes.14,15
  • Chaque heure que les enfants consacrent à des activités sédentaires retarde l’heure de leur coucher de 3 minutes16. Et le jeune canadien âgé de 5 à 17 ans moyen consacre 8,5 heures à des activités sédentaires chaque jour.ECMS 2012-13
  • 33 % des enfants âgés de 5 à 13 ans et 45 % des jeunes âgés de 14 à 17 ans au Canada ont occasionnellement de la difficulté à trouver le sommeil ou à rester endormis.ECMS 2012-13
  • 36 % des jeunes âgés de 14 à 17 ans trouvent difficile de rester éveillés au cours de la journée.ECMS 2012-13
  • 31 % des enfants d’âge scolaire et 26 % des adolescents canadiens manquent de sommeil.17

[see-also]

Même les enfants qui satisfont aux exigences minimales quant à la durée de leur sommeil n’ont pas nécessairement un sommeil réparateur. L’augmentation du temps passé devant un écran et les horaires chargés font que les enfants ont un sommeil pauvre ou inconsistant – par exemple, ils restent tard debout pour faire leurs devoirs la semaine ou regardent la télévision dans leur chambre jusqu’à minuit et tentent de se rattraper au cours de la fin de semaine

  • 43 % des jeunes canadiens âgés de 16 et 17 ans ne dorment pas assez la semaine.17

Les dangers d’une génération en manque de sommeil ne se limitent pas au fait que les enfants soient fatigués et de mauvaise humeur; la fatigue des enfants s’observe de différentes façons.18

Certains effets du manque de sommeil chez les enfants sont évidents, d’autres ne le sont pas :

  • Trop peu de sommeil peut provoquer l'hyperactivité, l'impulsivité et le manque d’attention.19-20
  • Les enfants qui manquent de sommeil sont plus susceptibles d’avoir de la difficulté avec la créativité verbale et la résolution de problèmes; ils obtiennent généralement des notes plus faibles lors des tests de QI.20-21
  • Le manque de sommeil produit des changements hormonaux indésirables tels que ceux associés au risque accru d’obésité, de diabète et d’hypertension.20
  • La perte chronique de sommeil est liée à des taux plus élevés de dépression et de pensées suicidaires.22,23

Et c’est un cercle vicieux : une étude menée auprès des jeunes torontois âgés de 10 à 12 ans a démontré que ceux qui dormaient le moins lors des journées d’école étaient significativement moins actifs et plus sédentaires que ceux qui dormaient le plus.24

Suite après le sommaire des notes...

La bonne nouvelle est que l’activité physique aérobie régulière pourrait être la meilleure aide au sommeil qui soit : 

  • Les élèves de 5e année qui présentent les plus hauts niveaux d’activité physique sont moins susceptibles d’être fatigués durant la journée.25
  • Le transport actif et le jeu à l’extérieur augmentent l’exposition à la lumière du jour, ce qui aide à régulariser les habitudes de sommeil.18 
  • L’activité physique aide les enfants à s’endormir plus rapidement.26
  • Les étudiants du secondaire qui font au moins 60 minutes d’activité physique chaque jour sont, dans une proportion de 41 %, plus susceptibles d’obtenir suffisamment de sommeil que ceux qui ne le font pas.27

Notre tendance pourrait être de nous efforcer chaque jour à épuiser les enfants, mais plus d'activité ne signifie pas nécessairement plus d'activité physique. De plus, un horaire surchargé peut avoir un impact sur le sommeil en rendant les enfants excités et en repoussant l'heure du souper, le temps consacré aux devoirs et l'heure du coucher.28 Comme le stipulent les nouvelles Directives canadiennes en matière de mouvement sur 24 heures pour les enfants et les jeunes, une enfance saine exige un équilibre entre l'activité physique, le comportement sédentaire et le sommeil. Les bienfaits pour la santé qui accompagnent l'activité physique aérobie sont diminués si les enfants ont de mauvaises habitudes de sommeil ou s’ils ont des comportements sédentaires excessifs. De plus, les enfants bien reposés ne sont pas en bonne santé s’ils ne font pas assez d’activité physique.13

Pour contrer l’insidieuse épidémie de manque de sommeil, les enfants doivent se lever du canapé, sortir dehors et faire régulièrement battre leur cœur plus vite. C’est le moment de se réveiller! Si les enfants canadiens restent moins longtemps assis et bougent plus, nous dormirons tous mieux.

Découvrez où le canada se situe

Pour la première fois, les résultats du Bulletin de l’activité physique chez les jeunes de ParticipACTION sont comparés à ceux de 37 autres pays, sur les six continents.

Informations de citation

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103 Lusk AC, Furth PG, Morency P, Miranda-Moreno LF, Willett WC, Dennerlein JT. Risk of injury for bicycling on cycle tracks versus in the street. Inj Prev. 2011;17:131-135.

104 Teschke K, Harris MA, Reynolds CC, Winters M, Babul S, Chipman M, Cusimano MD, Brubacher JR, Hunte G, Friedman SM, Monro M, Shen H, Vernich L, Cripton PA. Route infrastructure and the risk of injury to bicyclists: a case-crossover study. Am J Public Health. 2012;102:2336-2343.

105 Dill J, Carr T. Bicycle commuting and facilities in major US cities: if you build them, commuters will use them. Transp Res Rec. 2003;1828:116-123.

106 Winters M, Teschke K. Route preferences among adults in the near market for cycling: findings from the Cycling in Cities Study. Am J Health Promot. 2010;25:40-47.

107 Teschke K, Koehoorn M, Shen H, Dennis J. Bicycling injury hospitalization rates in Canadian jurisdictions: analyses examining associations with helmet legislation and mode share. BMJ Open. 2015;5:e008052.

108 Rothman L, Macarthur C, To T, Buliung R, Howard A. Motor vehicle-pedestrian collisions and walking to school: the role of the built environment. Pediatrics. 2014;133(5):776-784.

109 de Hartog JJ, Boogaard H, Nijland H, Hoek G. Do the health benefits of cycling outweigh the risks? Environ Health Perspect. 2010;118(8):1109-1116.

110 Mueller N, Rojas-Rueda D, Cole-Hunter T, de Nazelle A, Dons E, Gerike R, Götschi T, Panis LI, Kahlmeier S, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ. Health impact assessment of active transportation: a systematic review. Prev Med. 2015;76:103-114.

111 Rojas-Rueda D, de Nazelle A, Tainio M, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ. The health risks and benefits of cycling in urban environments compared with car use: health impact assessment study. BMJ. 2011;343:d451.

112 Rothman L, Howard A, Buliung R, Macarthur C, Macpherson A. Dangerous student car drop-off behaviours and child pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions: an observational study. Traffic Inj Prev. 2016;Jan 13:0. [publié en ligne, avant publication sur papier]

113 Rushowy K. Parents’ dangerous driving at drop-off areas puts students at risk, study finds. Toronto: Toronto Star; 2016. URL: www.thestar.com/yourtoronto/education/2016/01/20/parents-dangerous-driving-at-drop-off-areas-puts-studentsat-risk-study-finds.html.

114 Larouche R, Sarmiento OL, Broyles ST, Denstel KD, Church TS, Barreira TV, Chaput JP, Fogelholm M, Hu G, Kuriyan R, Kurpad A, Lambert EV, Maher C, Maia J, Matsudo V, Olds T, Onywera V, Standage M, Tremblay MS, Tudor-Locke C, Zhao P, Katzmarzyk PT for the ISCOLE Research Group. Are the correlates of active school transport context-specific? Int J Obes Suppl. 2015;5:S89-S99.

115 Mammen G, Faulkner G, Buliung R, Lay J. Understanding the drive to escort: a cross-sectional analysis examining parental attitudes towards children’s school travel and independent mobility. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:862.

116 Mitra R, Buliung R, Faulkner G. Spacial clustering and the temporal mobility of walking school trips in the Greater Toronto Area. Health Place. 2010;16:646-650.

117 Mitra R, Buliung RN. Exploring differences in school travel mode choice behaviour between children and youth. Transp Policy. 2015;42:4-11.

118 Mitra R, Faulkner GEJ, Buliung RN, Stone MR. Do parental perceptions of the neighbourhood environment influence children’s independent mobility? Evidence from Toronto, Canada. Urban Studies. 2014;51(16):3401-3419.

119 Bookwala A, Elton-Marshall T, Leatherdale ST. Factors associated with active commuting among a nationally representative sample of Canadian youth. Can J Public Health. 2014;105(5):e348-e353.

120 Guliani A, Mitra R, Buliung RN, Larsen K, Faulkner GEJ. Gender-based differences in school travel mode choice behaviour: examining the relationship between the neighbourhood environment and perceived traffic safety. J Transp Health. 2015;2(4):502-511.

121 Gray C, Larouche R, Barnes JD, Colley RC, Tremblay MS, Cowie Bonne J, Arthur M, Cameron C, Chaput J-P, Faulkner G, Janssen I, Kolen AM, Manske S, Salmon A, Spence JC, Timmons B. Are we driving our kids to unhealthy habits? Results from the Active Healthy Kids Canada 2013 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2014;11(6):6009-6020.

122 Pabayo R, Gauvin L, Barnett TA. Longitudinal changes in active transportation to school in Canadian youth aged 6 through 16 years. Pediatrics. 2011;128(2):e404-e413.

123 Longmuir PE, Tremblay MS. Top 10 research questions related to physical literacy. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2016;87(1):28-35.

124 Whitehead M. Physical literacy throughout the lifecourse. London: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group; 2010.

125 Lloyd M, Colley RC, Tremblay MS. Advancing the debate on “fitness testing” for children: perhaps we’re riding the wrong animal. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2010;22(2):176-182.

126 Longmuir PE. Understanding the physical literacy journey of children: the Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy. International Council of Sport Science and Physical Education. 2013;Bulletin 65:276-282.

127 Francis CE, Longmuir PE, Boyer C, Andersen LB, Barnes JD, Boiarskaia E, Cairney J, Faigenbaum AD, Faulkner G, Hands BP, Hay JA, Janssen I, Katzmarzyk PT, Kemper HC, Knudson D, Lloyd M, McKenzie TL, Olds TS, Sacheck JM, Shephard RJ, Zhu W, Tremblay MS. The Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy: development of a model of children’s capacity for a healthy, active lifestyle through a Delphi process. J Phys Act Health. 2016;3(2):214-222.

128 Longmuir PE, Boyer C, Lloyd M, Yang Y, Boiarskaia E, Zhu W, Tremblay MS. The Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy: methods for children in grades 4 to 6 (8 to 12 years). BMC Public Health. 2015;15(1):767.

129 Lizotte C, Larouche R, LeBlanc AG, Longmuir PE, Tremblay MS, Chaput JP. Investigation of new correlates of physical literacy in children. Health Behav Policy Rev. 2016;3(2):110-122.

130 Sport for Life Society. Canada’s Physical Literacy Consensus Statement released! Victoria: Sport for Life Society; 2015. URL: goo.gl/DGH5TA.

131 International Physical Literacy Association. International Physical Literacy Association homepage. Plymouth: International Physical Literacy Association; 2016. URL: www.physical-literacy.org.uk.

132 La Déclaration de consensus canadien sur la littératie physique résulte d’une collaboration entre ParticipACTION, la société Le sport c’est pour la vie, le Groupe de recherche sur les saines habitudes de vie et l’obésité de l’Institut de recherche du Centre hospitalier pour enfants de l’Est de l’Ontario, Éducation physique et santé Canada, l’Association canadienne des parcs et loisirs et l’Ontario Society of Physical Activity Promoters in Public Health. Des représentants de l’International Physical Literacy Association ont également contribué à cet ouvrage à titre de conseillers. Déclaration de consensus canadien sur la littératie physique. Vancouver : 2015. URL : https://www.participaction.com/sites/default/files/downloads/Consensus%20Handout%202016%20-%20FRE.pdf.

133 Tremblay MS, Carson V, Chaput JP, Dinh T, Duggan M, Faulkner G, Connor Gorber S, Gray CE, Gruber R, Hartnell C, Janson K, Janssen I, Katzmarzyk PT, Kho ME, Latimer-Cheung A, LeBlanc C, Okely T, Olds T, Pate R, Phillips A, Poitras VJ, Rodenburg S, Rodin R, Saunders TJ, Sampson M, Stone J, Stratton G, Weiss SK, Zehr L. Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: an integration of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab (soumis).

134 Hirshkowitz M, Whiton K, Albert SM, Alessi C, Bruni O, DonCarlos L, Hazen N, Herman J, Katz ES, Kheirandish-Gozal L, Neubauer DN, O’Donnell AE, Ohayon M, Peever J, Rawding R, Sachdeva RC, Setters B, Vitiello MV, Ware JC. National Sleep Foundation’s sleep time duration recommendations: methodology and results summary. Sleep Health. 2015;1:40-43.

135 Gruber R, Carrey N, Weiss SK, Frappier JY, Rourke L, Brouillette RT, Wise MS. Position statement on pediatric sleep for psychiatrists. J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014;23:174-195.

136 Owens J; Adolescent Sleep Working Group; Committee on Adolescence. Insufficient sleep in adolescents and young adults: an update on causes and consequences. Pediatrics. 2014;134:e921-e932.

137 Chaput JP, Gray CE, Poitras VJ, Carson V, Gruber R, Olds T, Weiss SK, Gorber SC, Kho ME, Sampson M, Belanger K, Eryuzlu S, Callender L, Tremblay MS. Systematic review of the relationships between sleep duration and health indicators in school-aged children and youth. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. (sous presse).

138 Kjeldsen JS, Rosenkilde M, Nielsen SW, Reichkendler M, Auerbach P, Ploug T, Stallknecht B, Sjödin AM, Chaput JP. Effect of different doses of exercise on sleep duration, sleep efficiency and sleep quality in sedentary, overweight men. Bioenergetics. 2013;2:108.

139 Cain N, Gradisar M. Electronic media use and sleep in school-aged children and adolescents: a review. Sleep Med. 2010;11:735-742.

140 Pearson N, Braithwaite RE, Biddle SJ, van Sluijs EM, Atkin AJ. Associations between sedentary behaviour and physical activity in children and adolescents: a metaanalysis. Obes Rev. 2014;15:666-675.

141 Schmid SM, Hallschmid M, Jauch-Chara K, Wilms B, Benedict C, Lehnert H, Born J, Schultes B. Short-term sleep loss decreases physical activity under free-living conditions but does not increase food intake under time-deprived laboratory conditions in healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90:1476-1482.

142 Chaput JP. Is sleep deprivation a contributor to obesity in children? Eating Weight Disord. 2016;21(1):5-11.

143 Leatherdale ST, Harvey A. Examining communication- and media-based recreational sedentary behaviors among Canadian youth: results from the COMPASS study. Prev Med. 2015;74:74-80.

144 Agence de protection et de promotion de la santé de l’Ontario (Santé publique Ontario), Pyper E, Harrington DW, Manson HM. Temps passé devant un écran : Soutien parental pour la santé des enfants. Toronto. Queen’s Printer for Ontario, 2015. URL : http://www.publichealthontario.ca/fr/BrowseByTopic/HealthPromotion/Pages/parental-support-for-child-health.aspx.

145 Sedentary Behaviour Research Network. Letter to the editor: standardized use of the terms “sedentary” and “sedentary behaviours”. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2012 Jun;37(3):540-542.

146 Stierlin AS, De Lepeleere S, Cardon G, Dargent-Molina P, Hoffmann B, Murphy MH, Kennedy A, O’Donoghue G, Chastin SF, De Craemer M; DEDIPAC consortium. A systematic review of determinants of sedentary behaviour in youth: a DEDIPAC-study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2015;12:133.

147 Maras D, Flament MF, Murray M, Buchholz A, Henderson KA, Obeid N, Goldfield GS. Screen time is associated with depression and anxiety in Canadian youth. Prev Med. 2015;73:133-138.

148 Liu M, Wu L, Yao S. Dose-response association of screen time-based sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents and depression: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Br J Sports Med. 2015. pii: bjsports-2015-095084.

149 LeBlanc AG, Katzmarzyk PT, Barreira TV, Broyles ST, Chaput JP, Church TS, Fogelholm M, Harrington DM, Hu G, Kuriyan R, Kurpad A, Lambert EV, Maher C, Maia J, Matsudo V, Olds T, Onywera V, Sarmiento OL, Standage M, Tudor-Locke C, Zhao P, Tremblay MS; ISCOLE Research Group. Correlates of total sedentary time and screen time in 9-11 year-old children around the world: the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment. PLoS One. 2015;10(6):e0129622.

150 Adamo KB, Colley RC, Hadjiyannakis S, Goldfield GS. Physical activity and sedentary behavior in obese youth. J Pediatr. 2015;166(5):1270-1275.

151 Gomes TN, dos Santos FK, Santos D, Pereira S, Chaves R, Katzmarzyk PT, Maia J. Correlates of sedentary time in children: a multilevel modelling approach. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:890.

152 McNeil J, Tremblay MS, Leduc G, Boyer C, Bélanger P, Leblanc AG, Borghese MM, Chaput JP. Objectively-measured sleep and its association with adiposity and physical activity in a sample of Canadian children. J Sleep Res. 2015;24(2):131-139.

153 Xu H, Wen LM, Rissel C. Associations of parental influences with physical activity and screen time among young children: a systematic review. J Obes. 2015;2015:546925.

154 Birken CS, Lichtblau B, Lenton-Brym T, Tucker P, Maguire JL, Parkin PC, Mahant S; TARGet Kids! Collaboration. Parents’ perception of stroller use in young children: a qualitative study. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:808.

155 Tremblay MS, Leblanc AG, Carson V, Choquette L, Connor Gorber S, Dillman C, Duggan M, Gordon MJ, Hicks A, Janssen I, Kho ME, Latimer-Cheung AE, Leblanc C, Murumets K, Okely AD, Reilly JJ, Stearns JA, Timmons BW, Spence JC; Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology. Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2012;37(2):370-391.

156 Agence de protection et de promotion de la santé de l’Ontario (Santé publique Ontario), Pyper E, Harrington DW, Manson HM. Activité physique : Soutien parental pour la santé des enfants. Toronto. Queen’s Printer for Ontario, 2015. URL : http://www.publichealthontario.ca/fr/BrowseByTopic/HealthPromotion/Pages/parental-support-for-child-health.aspx.

157 Statistique Canada. Activité physique directement mesurée chez les adultes, 2012 et 2013. Ottawa : Statistique Canada; 2015. URL : goo.gl/oIDOIc.

158 Rhodes RE, Spence JC, Berry T, Deshpande S, Faulkner G, Latimer-Cheung AE, O’Reilly N, Tremblay MS. Understanding action control of parental support behavior for child physical activity. Health Psychol. 2016;35(2):131-140

159 Carson V, Stearns J, Janssen I. The relationship between parental physical activity and screen time behaviors and the behaviors of their young children.  Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2015;27(3):390-395.

160 Bélanger-Gravel A, Gauvin L, Lagarde F, Laferté M. Correlates and moderators of physical activity in parent-tween dyads: a socio-ecological perspective. Public Health. 2015;129(9):1218-1223.

161 Yao CA, Rhodes RE. Parental correlates in child and adolescent physical activity: a meta-analysis. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2015;12:10.

162 Carson V. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between parental support and children’s physical activity in the early years. J Phys Act Health. 2015. [publié en ligne, avant publication sur papier]

163 Edwards MJ, Jago R, Sebire SJ, Kesten JM, Pool L, Thompson JL. The influence of friends and siblings on the physical activity and screen viewing behaviours of children aged 5-6 years: a qualitative analysis of parent interviews. BMJ Open. 2015;5(5):e006593.

164 Katapally TR, Muhajarine N. Capturing the interrelationship between objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children in the context of diverse environmental exposures. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015;12(9):10995-11011.

165 Dowd AJ, Chen MY, Jung ME, Beauchamp MR. “Go Girls!”: psychological and behavioral outcomes associated with a group-based healthy lifestyle program for adolescent girls. Transl Behav Med. 2015;5(1):77-86.

166 Spencer RA, Bower J, Kirk SF, Hancock Friesen C. Peer mentoring is associated with positive change in physical activity and aerobic fitness of grades 4, 5, and 6 students in the heart healthy kids program. Health Promot Pract. 2014 Nov;15(6):803-811.

167 Eskicioglu P, Halas J, Sénéchal M, Wood L, McKay E, Villeneuve S, Shen GX, Dean H, McGavock JM. Peer mentoring for type 2 diabetes prevention in First Nations children. Pediatrics. 2014;133(6):e1624-e1631.

168 Michie S, van Stralen MM, West R. The behaviour change wheel: a new method for characterising and designing behaviour change interventions. Implement Sci. 2011;23:6:42.

169 Spence JC, Dinh T. Moving ahead: Taking steps to reduce physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour. Ottawa: The Conference Board of Canada; 2015.

170 Healthy Families BC. Set S.M.A.R.T. goals. Victoria: Healthy Families BC; 2013. URL: www.healthyfamiliesbc.ca/home/articles/set-smart-goals.

171 Biddle S, Wang CJ, Kavussanu M, Spray C. Correlates of achievement goal orientations in physical activity: a systematic review of research. Eur J Sport Sci. 2003;3(5):1-20.

172 Ryan RM, Patrick H, Deci EL, Williams GC. Facilitating health behaviour change and its maintenance: interventions based on self-determination theory. Eur Health Psych. 2008;10(1):2-5.

173 Bandura A. Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. London: Macmillan; 1997.

174 Hatfield DP, Chomitz VR. Increasing children’s physical activity during the school day. Curr Obes Rep. 2015;4(2):147-156.

175 Hinckson E, Salmon J, Benden M, Clemes SA, Sudholz B, Barber SE, Aminian S, Ridgers ND. Standing classrooms: research and lessons learned from around the world. Sports Med. 2015. [publié en ligne, avant publication sur papier]

176 Minges KE, Chao AM, Irwin ML, Owen N, Park C, Whittemore R, Salmon J. Classroom standing desks and sedentary behavior: a systematic review. Pediatrics. 2016. 2016;137(2):1-18.

177 CTV News. Grade 1 kids get standing desks in Saskatchewan town. Toronto: CTV News; 2015. URL: www.ctvnews.ca/health/grade-1-kids-get-standing-desks-insaskatchewan-town-1.2234337.

178 Statistique Canada. Tableau 252-0051 - Statistiques des crimes fondés sur l’affaire, par infractions détaillées, annuel (nombre sauf indication contraire) CANSIM (base de données). Ottawa : Statistique Canada, 2016. URL : http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?id=2520051&pattern=homicide+rate&p2=-1&tabMode=dataTable&p1=1&retrLang=fra&srchLan=-1&lang=fra.

179 Boyce J. Statistiques sur les crimes déclarés par la police au Canada, 2014. URL : http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2015001/article/14211-fra.htm.

180 Moloughney BW, Bursey GE1, Neumann J, Leeming DH, Gutmann CE, Sivanand B, Mowat DL. Incorporating consideration of health impacts into land use development approval processes: development of a Health Background Study Framework. Can J Public Health. 2014;106(1 Suppl 1):eS33-eS42.

181 Cutumisu N, Bélanger-Gravel A, Laferté M, Lagarde F, Lemay JF, Gauvin L. Influence of area deprivation and perceived neighbourhood safety on active transport to school among urban Quebec preadolescents. Can J Public Health. 2014;105(5):e376-e382.

182 D’Haese S, Van Dyck D, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Deforche B, Cardon G. The association between the parental perception of the physical neighborhood environment and children’s location-specific physical activity. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:565.

183 Holt NL, Lee H, Millara CA, Spence JC. “Eyes on where children play”: a retrospective study of active free play. Child Geogr. 2015;13(1):73-88.

184 Lee H, Tamminen KA, Clark AM, Slater L, Spence JC, Holt NL. A meta-study of qualitative research examining determinants of children’s independent active free play. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2015;12:5.

185 Gray C, Gibbons R, Larouche R, Sandseter EB, Bienenstock A, Brussoni M, Chabot G, Herrington S, Janssen I, Pickett W, Power M, Stanger N, Sampson M, Tremblay MS. What is the relationship between outdoor time and physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and physical fitness in children? A systematic review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015;12(6):6455-6474.

186 Nauta J, Martin-Diener E, Martin BW, van Mechelen W, Verhagen E. Injury risk during different physical activity behaviours in children: a systematic review with bias assessment. Sports Med. 2015;45(3):327-336.

187 Vanos JK. Children’s health and vulnerability in outdoor microclimates: a comprehensive review. Environ Int. 2015;76:1-15.

188 Janssen I, Rosu A. Undeveloped green space and free-time physical activity in 11 to 13-year-old children. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2015;12:26.

189 Fédération canadienne des municipalités. Les villes et les collectivités : partenaires dans l’avenir du Canada. Ottawa : Fédération canadienne des municipalités; 2015. URL : goo.gl/4RS2gY.

190 Institut canadien de la recherche sur la condition physique et le mode de vie. 2010-2011 Physical Activity Monitor. Bulletin 07 : Availability of programs and places to be active in the community. Ottawa : Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute; 2013. URL : goo.gl/HVumG7.

191 Premier ministre du Canada. Lettres de mandat des ministres. Ottawa : premier ministre du Canada; 2015. URL : http://pm.gc.ca/fra/lettres-de-mandat-des-ministres.

192 Premier ministre du Canada. Lettres de mandat de la ministériels du ministre des Sports et des Personnes handicapées. Ottawa : premier ministre du Canada; 2015. URL : http://pm.gc.ca/fra/lettre-de-mandat-de-la-ministre-des-sports-et-despersonnes-handicapees.

193 Premier ministre du Canada. Lettres de mandat ministériels du ministre de l’Infrastructure et des Collectivités. Ottawa : premier ministre du Canada; 2015. URL : http://pm.gc.ca/fra/lettre-de-mandat-du-ministre-de-linfrastructureet-des-collectivites.

194 Premier ministre du Canada. Lettre de mandat de la ministériels du ministre de l’Environnement et du Changement climatique. Ottawa : premier ministre du Canada; 2015. URL : http://pm.gc.ca/fra/lettre-de-mandat-de-la-ministre-delenvironnement-et-du-changement-climatique.

195 Le Comité sénatorial permanent des Affaires sociales, des sciences et de la technologie. Obésité au Canada : Une approche pansociétale pour un Canada en meilleure santé. Ottawa : Parlement du Canada; 2016. URL : http://www.parl.gc.ca/Content/SEN/Committee/421/soci/RMS/01mar16/Report-f.htm.

 

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Les gouvernements provinciaux/territoriaux, par l’entremise du Conseil interprovincial du sport et des loisirs (CISL), ont offert un soutien additionnel. Plusieurs organisations nous soutiennent et nous aident à faire connaîtrele Bulletin 2016 à travers les provinces et les territoires.